Niels Bohr’s Cosmetology

This entry was posted by on Saturday, 5 February, 2011 at

Cosmetizarea lui Niels BOHR

Let’s  not deceive ourselves: behind the profound and meditative  visage of  Bohr there was a fauve, for everyone knows the pugnacity with which he imposed his views on his partners in discussion.

Georges LOCHAK – France

Fig.1 Tamable quantum fauvism

Photo courtesy of Erik Johansson – Sweden

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Am fost intrebat aproape ultimativ de ce intarzie “ atat” materialul promis, consacrat Copenhagen interpretation – caracterizata in titlu drept “ Un pragmatic mismatch” aflat in plina agonie. Am motive temeinice sa comit aceasta amanare si cel mai important  este acela ca problema imi pare deosebit de  serioasa : datorita unui incontestabil monopol intelectual – pe cat de elegant / civilizat pe atat de inflexibil – acest Club metodologic inchis, cu sediul la Copenhaga / Goettingen a frant timp de decenii aripile creative ale unor fizicieni de geniu ( o sa-i amintesc doar pe cei de la varf: A.Einstein , E. Schroedinger, D. Bohm, L. de Broglie… ), aducandu-i uneori la disperare. Ca specialist in bolile cronice pot afirma ca aceasta situatie speciala, aparent fara iesire, a scurtat viata lui Einstein si a lui Bohm, ambii fiind marcati de un stress permanent si intens : Einstein a decedat din cauza unui aneurism grav ( care reclama operatie urgenta , refuzata de Einstein desi el stia bine ce pret va trebui platit pt. aceasta decizie ), in vreme ce Bohm a fost victima unei depresiuni atroce ( instalata emotional ) pt. care specialistii vremii nu au gasit alta solutie decat “ tratamentul “ chimic despre care Bohm stia dinainte ca ii va fi fatal si totusi l-a acceptat. Intrucat Bohm, Schroedinger ( precum si J.S. Bell ) sunt fizicienii mei preferati – atat ca savanti cat si ca oameni / caractere, tin neaparat ca , la nivelul fortelor mele – nici prea mari dar nici prea mici – sa incerc sa le pledez cauza cu toata gravitatea / competenta de care sunt in stare, mai cu seama ca , asa cum am fost atentionat , in prezent este in plina desfasurare o campanie concertata de “ reabilitare “ nu, nu a grupului Einstein ( care ar fi meritat-o cu prisosinta ) ci a grupului Copenhaga , in mod special a lui Bohr; unii autori ( ca M. Schlosshauer si K. Camilleri – doi australieni , primul dintre ei fiind recent transferat la… Institutul N.Bohr din Copenhaga ), au luat  ca baza o lucrare mai veche ( 1994 ) semnata de Don Howard  considerand  ca Bohr ar fi avut o implicare mai curand colaterala in “ afacerea Copenhaga “ principalul responsabil cu ” extremismele” – if any – fiind Werner Heisenberg cu care Bohr s-ar fi gasit adesea in dezacord in problemele principiale. Evident, eu sunt intru totul de acord cu ideea depasirii  abordarii “ unitare “ , la pachet cum spun romanii , abordare simplista, promovata cu decenii in urma de filosofii materialisti rusi ( sovietici, mai exact ) ; eu insumi fac tot ce este posibil sa abordez problemele cu discernamant si buna credinta fiindca , trebuie sa recunosc ca , intre anumite limite , nu foarte largi, Bohr s-a dovedit in adevar mai prudent, temperand uneori elanul metodologic excesiv al mai tanarului sau coleg german ( l-am numit pe W.H.). Totusi per total aprecierea negativa ( si nu numai cea negativa! ) privind rolul jucat de “ Copenhagen interpretation “ asupra dezvoltarii conceptual – metodologice a fizicii cuantice, ramane in buna masura legata de initiativele si angajarile personale ( scrise ) ale lui Bohr, Heisenberg ocupand un …meritoriu loc secund f. aproape de lider ( cei doi fiind urmati de Pauli , Rosenfeld, von Weizsacker ,…). In ultimele zile a trebuit asadar sa studiez atent cele doua articole – etalon publicate de cuplul M.S. si K.C. in 2008 ( un studiu extensiv si dens ) si 2010 ( un fel de rezumat jovial al primului articol) precum si o replica indirecta datorata Dr. L.E. Ballentine ( Canada ) , sub forma a doua articole remarcabile vizand in esenta demitizarea raportului dintre clasicalitate si decoherenta.
Revenind la incercarile de “ cosmetizare “ ( deloc spontane, evident ) vreau sa subliniez ca Bohr s-a remarcat ca un excelent  tactician ( fiind un adevarat maestru al improvizatiei de moment ) dar fiind mult  mai putin inspirat in  strategia dezvoltarii. Am la indemana o colectie intreaga de optiuni metodologice fisurate ( ca sa nu zic altfel ) cu care Bohr a reusit sa controleze decenii la rand miscarea de idei din fizica cuantica. Va prezint doar doua dintre ele cu comentarii extrem de scurte:
1. Proprietatile sistemelor cuantice nu exista inainte ( si separat ) de procesul masurarii ( eroare mare, bazata pe confuzia nescuzabila dintre verbele “ a exista “ si “ a se manifesta” ). Corect ar fi fost: “ nu se manifesta “ intrucat aceste proprietati nu doar ca exista inaintea oricarei masurari ( in actual, de exemplu ) dar ele pre-exista in potentialul posibil, conferind individualitate ( potentiala! ) acestor sisteme , individualitate care se manifesta in mod specific in interactiunea lor cu aparatul de masura – altfel, fotonii si electronii – de natura respectiv bozonica si fermionica  s-ar identifica, ceea ce nu e cazul. Reductionismul Copenhagen interpretation este asadar dublu:  fata de actual ( D.Bohm a aratat ca in metodologia bohriana nu exista actual / actualizare ) si , cu atat mai mult , fata de potentialul posibil.Desigur, amatorii de  replici ieftine  pot afirma ca  potentialul posibil – atat cat este necesar pentru demersul ” don’t worry ” – e continut in mod implicit in…amplitudinea insasi; ori, la fel de  …ingenios, ca de fapt entanglementul si decoherence  au  fost anticipate  sub forma interactiunii speciale dintre sistemul cuantic si aparatul de masura, meritul lui H.-D.Zeh si W. Zurek fiind acela al unor…epigoni, preocupati exclusiv de sondarea / clarificarea   gandirii obscur – profunde  a  marelui Danez.

Fig. 2 Complementaritatea …necomplementara (c ) si corectarea ei ( d )

2. Unda si particula ( respectiv insusirile  wave-like si particle – like ) coexista ca posibilitati ( sic ) reciproc exclusive. Trecand peste inconsecventa ( in raport cu ” 1 ” ) a  considerarii unor proprietati  ( co ) existente in…posibil, deci mult inainte de real, eroarea etalon – care a devenit tot mai evidenta in ultimele decenii ( dar a fost semnalata cu o anume timiditate mult inainte de catre V.A.Fock si D. Bohm ) consista in faptul ca posibilitatile mentionate ( in adevar exclusive dar numai in cadrul fizicii clasice ) nu sunt exclusive sau conflictuale in microfizica – asa cum am aratat in sectiunea acestui blog intitulata “ Sinteza cu armonizator “- ele comunica, putand trece una in alta ( cele 2 pozitii metodologice  sunt redate in Fig. 2, c si d ). O subliniere: a avut sau nu in vedere , in mod explicit , N.Bohr   complementaritatea  unda / particula ? ( unii cercetatori  considera ca Bohr ar fi vizat nu atat unda / particula cat  forma….  soft a binomului:  ” wave -like and  particle -like ” , de asemenea ca  aceste  aspecte ar fi fost desemnate preferential prin termenul atenuat ” dilema “. Parerea mea este ca in adevar Bohr  a preferat  sa exemplifice complementaritatea  cu ajutorul  insusirilor ( legitatilor )   cinematice si dinamice  dar  nu preferinta /frecventa utilizarii este importanta  in acest caz ci statutul metodologic atribuit ( sau nu ) celor doua descrieri (  mentionez in treacat  ca atat dilema cat si complementaritatea  bohriana, inautentica,au la baza logica / negatia exclusiva : either / or ). Pentru mine este  neindoielnic faptul ca Bohr a considerat  raportul  unda/particula ca pe unul dual – complementar; spre exemplu,in articolul  Discutii cu Einstein…,(publicat la capatul carierei, la cateva decenii dupa  ” Como ” ) Bohr  declara ca de Broglie ( in 1925 ) a  sustinut  ca dualitatea  unda / particula  nu se limiteaza  la campuri  ( radiatie )  ci este , in egala masura , inevitabila  si in descrierea particulelor materiale; pt. a risipi orice echivoc  Bohr subliniaza imediat  ca aceasta idee  a fost curand confirmata  de experimentele  de interferenta a electronilor.

Avertisment : unii autori promoveaza  o – deliberata? – confuzie cu privire la  ” adevaratul Bohr ” , mentionand  ca ” exista inregistrari privind o anume pozitie  a lui Bohr ” fara a preciza data  publicarii, imprejurarea, etc. Spre exemplu , in cunoscutul sau articol  dedicat  raportului dintre fizica si filosofie (Quantum Physics and Philosophy ) publicat cu cativa ani inaintea disparitiei sale fizice , Bohr comite o serie de “piruete” metodologice  senzationale care, desi salutare  ( mai bine mai tarziu decat niciodata ) nu reusesc sa  mascheze, nici chiar sa diminueze,  impresia de  pragmatic mismatch a  pozitiei sale de referinta, extinsa pe o durata de 3-4 decenii. In cartea sa  referential ” Quantum Dialogue ”  , la pag. 215, Mara BELLER ” prefateaza  ”  piruetele bohriene  in termenii urmatori: ” Claims in  Bohr’s later writings contrast sharply with the historical situation.” In continuare voi prezenta  doar cateva aspecte care mi-au retinut atentia inca de la prima lectura a acestui articol- testament:

Pirueta 1. Bohr recunoaste  in mod explicit ( mai explicit decat in alte ocazii anterioare )  atat caracterul obiectiv  al descrierii cuantice  ( vizand independenta  acesteia de subiectul cunoscator ) , precum si , mai cu seama ,  existenta obiectiva a insusirilor microsistemelor a caror realitate este deplina si indiscutabila egala in rang cu  realitatea aparatului de masurare ).

Pirueta 2. Pentru prima data ( dupa cunostinta mea ), Bohr  face o delimitare clara intre cauzalitate si determinismul laplaceian , aratand ca in fizica cuantica  principiul cauzalitatii -inteles ca  legatura dintre cauza si efect – este respectat  integral , singura cerinta  mai speciala fiind renuntarea  la idealul determinismului clasic  ( Bohr continuand sa puna semnul egal intre determinismul in general si  varianta sa  particular – abstracta – determinismul laplaceian ).Din pacate, alternativa bohriana la  determinismul laplaceian  ar constitui-o nu determinismul non-laplaceian ci … principiul  complementaritatii: ” renuntarea la idealul  determinismului clasic isi gaseste o stralucita ( sic ) expresie in relatiile de complementaritate.”

Pirueta 3. Semnificativa pare si replierea lui Bohr pe o pozitie rationala privind rolul aparatului de masura in ” economia ” sistemului integral obiect cuantic / aparat de masura. Actualizand termenii ,  voi reda aceasta  reconsiderare  astfel :  aparatul de masura nu ( mai ) este un generator al sistemului cuantic ( atentie la implicatii! ) , respectiv al insusirilor acestuia, ci doar un modulator ( cu functii de fixare/stabilizare , amplificare / inregistrare).

Pirueta 4. Modul in care Bohr intelege , in final , care ar fi meaningul fizic al masurarii este demn de toata atentia  mai cu seama  pt. cei care vor sa acrediteze ideea ca Bohr ( prin afirmarea specificului procesului de masurare )  ar fi  anticipat  metodologic …entanglementul si decoherentza:  termenul ” masurare” ar trebui utilizat in sensul sau direct ca fiind o simpla comparatie cantitativa  ( cu un etalon ). Absolut inexact: asa cum am sugerat mai sus, termenul de modulator  trimite evident la o semnificatie  mai profund –  complexa decat comparatia cantitativa, implicand ceva mai putin decat o  geneza, totusi mult  mai mult decat compararea.

Pirueta 5. Personal am fost  realmente surprins sa aflu din lectura articolului mentionat  ca, in ceea ce priveste determinismul  experimental  din fizica cuantica , Bohr-senior  se apropie cu indrazneala de aliniamentele tineresti ale…superdeterminismului ( ! ) afirmand ca acest tip de experiment s-ar distinge prin ”  conditii  complet determinate.” Cale lunga , lunga pana la  …indeterminismul  cuantic asumat -timp de decenii – de Scoala de la Copenhaga.

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In concluzie – la aceasta scurta introducere –voi mentiona ca N.Bohr a fost – si va ramane –  unul dintre merituosii creatori ai vechii teorii cuantice , ca autor al modelului cuantificat al atomului de hidrogen, fiind considerat asadar pe drept unul dintre marii fizicieni ai secolului al XX-lea. Cat priveste activitatea sa ulterioara de elaborare / aparare a fundamentelor mecanicii cuantice aceasta s-a caracterizat printr-un practicism  oportunist, sfidand fundamentalitatea fizica prin  promovarea preferential- oportunista

  • a particulei ( fata de unda, cu  exceptia…undelor de probabilitate );
  • a discretului ( fata de continuu: Copenhagen interpretation  considerand ca natura este in mod fundamental  discreta );
  • a macroscopicului ( fata de cuantic: ” de fapt lumea cuantica nici nu exista ca atare ” );
  • a indeterminismului cuantic  asumat fata de determinismul suplu,  de esenta probabilista ( atestat de inalta probabilitate a predictiilor cuantice elaborate atat in cadrul schrödingerian al mecanicii ondulatorii cat si in acela gottingenian al matrix mechanics) si
  • a unei complementaritati abstracte , inautentice ( complementaritatea  autentica presupunand inter-comunicarea / suprapunerea  fie si partiala a relatelor, trasatura  incompatibila cu  excluderea reciproca ), ceea ce justifica cu prisosinta pt. oricare cercetator de buna credinta – angajat sau nu al Institutului Niels Bohr – caracterizarea facuta de mine ca “ pragmatic mismatch”.

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