Archive for September, 2009

Viul ( fiinta ) in sens larg. Situatia Physis

Posted by on Wednesday, 30 September, 2009

De la  fiinta ca lucru  la  lucrul ca fiinta

Timp de secole ,  metodología  cartesiana  a cultivat in mod sistematic  “  in sinele ”   ( inchiderea ce  ramane   inchisa ), conducand  la abordarea  reductionista a viului, respectiv  la denaturarea fiintei , transformata  intr-un simulacru; aceasta situatie dogmatica si-a atins , deja de mult,  limitele  fiind nevoita sa lase  progresiv  locul unui program  nereductionist  centrat pe recunoasterea  prioritatii fiintei fata de esentele de tip inchis. Martin HEIDEGGER a fost ganditorul care  a atras  atentia ca “ intelesul fiintei este marea intrebare a  filosofiei contemporane “ , indicand totodata si  demersul metodologic optim  – daca nu singurul disponibil – pentru atingerea acestui obiectiv: patrunderea cunoasterii dincolo de lucruri ( dincolo de Descartes ). Cu toate ca a  aratat  limpede in ce directie trebuie  cautata – si descoperita –  aceasta Tara a Fagaduintei metodologice , Heidegger, aidoma lui Moise , nu a  izbutit sa faca el insusi  primii pasi  pe acest teritoriu nou, neconventional, desi si-ar fi dorit foarte mult  acest lucru. Doua sublinieri : i. Pe urmele Scolii Daneze de filosofie , Heidegger a afirmat constant  ca fiintarea autentica este garantata de ramanerea in posibil, ceea ce implica atat  deschiderea realilor spre posibil cat si , concomitent , recunoasterea unui  nou tip de complexitate R / P, de ordinul realitatii fundamentale , care ia in considerare  atat starile actualizate / realizate cat si starile potential – posibile corelative ( vezi sectiunea ” Existenta in sens larg ” si, mai jos , paragraful ” Situatia – modelul  originar ”  referinta la  chimie  ). ii. Imperativul dezvoltarii civilizatiei contemporane occidentale   trimite  in mod expres  NU spre o civilizatie a lui Tao ci spre o civilizatie a fiintei; Tao  poseda, este adevarat,   atat Fiinta cat si Fundamentalitate dar ii lipsesc fiinta si fundamentalitatea , ceea ce explica , macar in parte , dispretul  miscarii New Age  pentru formele  sociale “ inferioare “ ( individ, cuplu, grupuri micro-sociale, etc. ) .

Viul in sens larg: abilitatea de a alege

Ideea  elaborarii conceptului “ viul in sens larg “ mi-a fost sugerata cu multi ani in urma de o cerinta metodologica netraditionala , formulata inca in 1901, de catre remarcabilul fizician rus N.A. UMOV : ALEGEREA trebuie  recunoscuta ca un proces  fizic fundamental, ea urmand a fi unul dintre conceptele de baza ale fizicii viitorului. Pornind de la acest atribut fundamental pentru definirea  viului in general – abilitatea de a alege – alte cerinte / criterii au fost impuse in deosebi de cercetarile de evolutie chimica ; mentionez ca prima lucrare de evolutie chimica  aparuta in limba romana ( Evolutia chimica, 1975 ) a fost semnata de autorul acestor randuri. Iata cateva dintre   cerintele  care trebuie indeplinite de un sistem pentru a fi “ viu in sens larg “ :
  • deschidere  spre mediul inconjurator, schimband cu acesta substanta, energie si informatie;
  • deschidere spre mediul intern – fluctuatii , stari potential – posibile ;
  • o anumita distanta de echilibrul termodinamic  ( asigurandu-se astfel optimizarea comunicarilor , stiut fiind ca  la echilibru comunicarile latente sunt decuplate de agitatia termica; acest aspect l-a determinat pe I.Prigogine sa afirme  ca “ nonechilibrul este mai curand revelator decat creator de ordine “ );
  • nelinearitate –  mici eforturi / inputs  putand produce  efecte / outputs enorme, catastrofice , de aici  caracterizarea sistemelor nelineare ca fiind  “sisteme catastrofice ” ;
  • sensitivitate la stimulii ambiantei  ( definita ca inversul energiei necesare pentru trecerea sistemului de la o stare distincta la alta );
  • suplete in alegeri ( Fig. 7b ), fara de care adaptivitatea nu poate surveni;
  • memorie sistemica minimala ;
  • istoricitate autentica.

sens_larg_A

Fig. 7   Alegerea  ca  absorbtie si emisie de radiatie

A. Alegere rigida

B. Flexibilitatea in alegeri

Dupa aparitia mecanicii cuantice ,  modelele uzuale  privind absorbtia si emisia de  energie de catre microsisteme ( atomi, molecule )  au  acordat preferinta alegerii rigide considerandu-se ca  nivelele energetice  nu ar fi afectate de cuplajul organizational al sistemului  ( energiile implicate in tranzitii ar fi practic invariante iar frecventele  corelative ar fi riguros determinate, stabile, Fig. 7a ) : ∆ E = Ei – Ej , respectiv  v i,j =  ∆ E / h. In realitate, asa cum Chen si Takeo au aratat intr-o lucrare deosebit de interesanta pentru  metodología sistemelor /  proceselor adaptive , orice interactiune ( tip coliziune, etc. ) a sistemului atomic sau  molecular cu mediul inconjurator  se manifesta  , intr-un mod sau altul , in bandele spectrale de emisie sau absorbtie. Ca rezultat, fiecare  nivel energetic  este caracterizat  printr-o largime  ∆ Ei  si, corespunzator , fiecare tranzitie , prin intervalul (largimea benzii ) ∆ Ei,j ( Fig. 7b ). Cele de mai sus sugereaza resursele adaptive  inepuizabile ale  microsistemelor  ( considerate solidar cu ambiantele lor  individualizate ), precum si  contributia  semnificativa a factorilor de mediu in atingerea  ( actualizarea )  unei anumite stari potential – posibile  a sistemului. Tinand seama  ca fiecare ( micro ) sistem are  propria sa signatura cuantica  ( o anumita frecventa  de emisie / absorbtie ) precum si o anumita sensitivitate, lectorul  interesat de identificarea  resurselor subtile  care guverneaza dezvoltarea sistemelor  va intui imediat ca  ne aflam in contact cu ceva fundamental , susceptibil sa explice  atat  subiectivitatea in sens larg , respectiv specificul alegerilor sistemului viu in sens larg ( suportul fizic al alegerii neunivoce precum si al “ liberului arbitru “  ) cat si  mecanismul directionarii evolutiei si al activitatii de acor-dare  de catre  Intreg. Esential pentru  acest demers este  sa i se restituie / recunoasca sistemului  inanimat  toate determinatile sale – ignorate sau subevaluate de catre stiinta si filosofia moderna – care permit potentialitatii sa se manifeste, conferindu-i astfel sistemului individualitate, capacitate efectiva de alegere si, corelativ , istoricitate autentica.

Insusiri vitale ale microsistemelor.Membranele termice si detoxifierea cuantica

Este binecunoscut faptul ca  din cele circa 90  elemente naturale cele mai frecvent intalnite in  compozitia materiei vii sunt urmatoarele sase: C, H ,O , N , P, Na. Cele mai abundente  elemente chimice in proteine  sunt C si H ( acestea reprezentand  80 % din numarul total de atomi ), urmatoarele doua  fiind O si N ( 19 % ). Acesti patru constituenti ai materiei vii formeaza  cel putin 95 % din masa acesteia . Care sunt criteriile care au  directionat aceasta evidenta selectie naturala operata la nivel atomic ? Prin ce s-au dovedit aceste microsisteme mai competitive  in raport cu toate celelalte ? Se poate afirma ca  gradul inalt de ordine ( entropia  deosebit de scazuta  ) care caracterizeaza  biopolimerii trebuie sa aiba  o explicatie  situata la nivelul unitatilor elementare? Se pare ca da , asa stau lucrurile. Din seria elementelor cu cele mai scazute valori ale capacitatilor calorice ( Andrew A. COCHRAN ),  din care reproduc mai jos doar pe primele zece , se observa ca sistemele care ne intereseaza ocupa pozitii deosebit de semnificative : C,  H,  B,  N, Be,Si, O, F, P, S De mentionat ca  dintre toate elementele care sunt solide la  25° Celsius, si in stransa legatura cu capacitatea calorica , carbonul are entropia cea mai redusa. Capacitatea calorica  poate fi interpretata ca ratia  instantanee cu care  dezordinea  termica este adaugata  ( sau scoasa ) dintr-un  sistem, entropia  constituind  masura intregii dezordini termice  acumulata de sistem  in intervalul de temperatura  de la O°  Kelvin la T. Din punct de vedere entropic, spre exemplu ,  carbonul este net mai avantajos decat siliciul pentru edificarea unor structuri inalt ordonate si functionale , entropia  siliciului cristalin  fiind = 4,51 cal/ ° C/ atom gram, de aproape 8 ori mai mare decat entropia carbonului ( diamantul avand  entropia = 0,585 ). Faptul ca un sistem  material ( atomic, molecular )  poseda o capacitate calorica scazuta are o semnificatie cruciala pentru destinul evolutiv al  acestuia  intrucat pentru un asemenea sistem  schimbul cuantic de energie cu  ambianta  este mult mai  putin probabil decat  in cazul sistemelor cu capacitati calorice inalte, ceea ce creeaza pentru structurile  biopolimerilor  posibilitatea de a-si  pastra gradul inalt de ordine si organizare / informatie  nealterate  de dezordinea termica a mediului ambiant. Explicatia capacitatilor calorice  deosebit de scazute a  proteinelor  trebuie cautata  la nivelul elementar  ( atomi si legaturi interatomice )  ea putand fi formulata in termenii urmatori :  dupa cum se stie , energia de oscilatie E  a unui atom intr-o molecula este data aproximativ de relatia ( 1 ) : E = ( n+ 1/2 )hV0            ( 1 ) unde V0 ( frecventa  clasica  a oscilatorului ) este  definita de ecuatia ( 2 ): V0 =  1/2∏ . √K/m          ( 2 ) In ( 2 )  m reprezinta masa atomica iar K  raportul dintre forta care produce deplasarea si deplasarea insasi a atomului in molecula, K fiind proportional cu taria legaturii interatomice. Cand frecventa vibratiei este redusa , energia cuantelor implicate  in sdchimbul energetic este la randul ei mica. In  structura proteinelor  sunt insa implicati concomitent atomi cu mase dintre cele mai mici si legaturi interatomice dintre cele mai puternice , ceea ce determina valori  deosebit de inalte ale  frecventei V0, deci cuante de mare energie. Cum mediul ambiant  ( el insusi fiind o entitate co- evolutiva , acor-data !) nu poate furniza de regula fotoni de o asemenea energie,  rezulta ca doar o fractiune  redusa  de atomi absorb si emit cuante  intr-un timp dat. Aceasta este ratiunea  mecanic – cuantica a faptului  ca proteinele ( biopolimerii , in general )  poseda o capacitate calorica ( si , corelativ , o entropie ) atat de scazuta  la temperaturile terestre   uzuale ( aceasta insusire inalt protectiva  am desemnat-o cu ani in urma cu termenul ” membrana termica “). Atentie, insa:  o capacitate calorica scazuta  a unui sistem  material inseamna nu doar ca  numai o fractiune redusa  a atomilor  constitutivi participa la schimbul cuantic  cu ambianta ( ceea ce reliefeaza predominanta caracterului de particula  al acestor atomi ) ci in acelasi timp inseamna si ca o  fractiune larga de atomi manifesta predominanta  insusirilor ondulatorii. Proprietatile ondulatorii, care sunt net precumpanitoare  pentru orice substanta la O° K , sunt , la temperatura terestra obisnuita , caracteristice pentru biopolimeri si materia vie. Rezulta ca seria elementelor citata mai sus , reprezinta  concomitent  (  de aceasta data  insa in ordine descrescanda ) si seria  elementelor cu cele mai inalte  grade de natura ondulatorie. Pe aceasta baza , am  corelat insusirile ondulatoriu / coerenta / viata , pe de o parte si  particula / decoerenta / boala ( moarte ) pe de alta parte, introducand  conceptul de detoxifiere cuantica, esential pentru  mentinerea / readucerea   sistemelor vii la  raporturile  optime  dintre coerenta / decoerenta. Asa cum am aratat deja ( vezi ” Constiinta  in sens larg – modelul cuantic ” ), metabolismul , somnul , meditatia  etc. reprezinta cele mai eficiente mijloace de detoxifiere cuantica de care dispune  organismul uman. Magistrala organizarii si istoricitatea autentica Cum se constituie totusi istoricitatea autentica la nivelul  sistemului “ viu in sens larg ”? Raspunsul este oferit de schema urmatoare – centrata pe nelinearitate si alegere neunivoca – numita de mine “ magistrala organizarii ”: Echilibru   ↔  Non-echilibru   ↔  Nelinearitate ↔  Instabilitate ↔  Alegere neunivoca   →   Ireversibilitate  → Istoricitate Recunoasterea / afirmarea /  promovarea  alegerii neunivoce si , corelativ,  a istoricitatii autentice  in natura ( inanimata ) reprezinta ( inca ) un act de curaj intelectual, o optiune ( inca ) riscanta din punct de vedere metodologic, majoritatea cercetatorilor preferand pozitia  conventionala, confortabila  a separarii  cartesiene (  clare si distincte  ) intre viu / neviu, respectiv intre istoric / anistoric; cu atat mai merituoasa imi pare preluarea acestor  optiuni non-cartesiene  ca  magistrala organizarii, rationalitatea nelineara, contingenta metodologica  si altele,   in unele lucrari recente ca ” SEMIOTICA ” ( pag. 134 s.a.  ) , editata in Romania ( 2006 ), de catre  colegul  Conf. Dr. Dumitru BORTUN .

Cartesianismul moare dar nu se preda

–  Stari T in cinetica chimica Cinetica chimica a contribuit  in modul cel mai direct la  evidentierea caracterului   perimat al  separarii rigide  dintre “ lucru” si “fiinta “ populand – in mod imprevizibil pentru expertii moderni – vastul   teritoriu  dintre  “ neviu “ si “ viu” cu sisteme / procese de natura tranzitorie  ( stari T )  ca de exemplu : bifurcatii si atractori stranii ,  procese / sisteme autooscilante si structuri disipative,..  Perplexitatea  incredibila  a expertilor moderni fata de aceste  aliniamente noi, necartesiene ,  a fost  probata   de refuzul categoric al acestora ( numiti de mine Legiunea Statu Quo – LSQ ) de a lua act, a publica si promova  un FAPT  extraordinar  anume reactiile BELOUSOV ( anii ’50 ) , ulterior cunoscute ca reactiile Belousov – Jabotinski , sub pretextul  descalificant ca “ un perpetuum mobile  in cinetica chimica  nu poate exista “. In prezent astfel de fenomene , care potrivit decretului LSQ    “ nu  exista ”, pot fi demonstrate  in orice laborator de liceu cu dotare medie, ele putand decurge atat in regim de sistem deschis cat si  in regim inchis, pe durate limitate. –  Modelul homeostatic  GAIA O situatie similara, de respingere a unei inovatii metodologice de cea mai buna calitate, avand o valoare euristic / explicativa  de exceptie , a oferit- o refuzul  LSQ din biologie de a valida modelul integrativ ( fizic / biologic )  denumit GAIA , elaborat de  Dr. James LOVELOCK care considera planeta Pamant ca un sistem VIU IN SENS LARG.  Acest  model homeostatic non-cartesian a fost calificat  de expertii moderni  ( care, evident,  nu au apucat sa asimileze  emergenta  mecanismelor  homeostatice  si nici ideea non-cartesiana ca orice emergenta poate  PRE – EXISTA ca  SITUATIE ORIGINARA, respectiv ca o lege morfogenetica specifica,  in potentialul posibil ) drept  o mostra  de  pseudo – stiinta  de inspiratie teleologica, finalista, sau mai  pe scurt: …Gaia it’s worthless.

Situatia Physis. Ce i-a lipsit lui Heidegger ?

De ce “ situatie “ si de ce “ physis “ ? Situatia – modelul originar Atat holismul in sens larg ( syntegrarea ) cat si realitatea fundamentala  au la baza  totalitatile  vii ( intregii autentici ) ,   sinteza dintre real / posibil constituind  momentul  initial, generativ al devenirii tuturor sistemelor , animate sau inanimate. Acest punct de vedere netraditional contravine  in mod evident tuturor cliseelor analitice  de inspiratie cartesiana  ( ca atomism, molecularism, etc. ) care considera  ca, dimpotriva , elementele  ( simplicitatea, analiticul, lucrul ) genereaza si intemeiaza complexitatea , fiinta. Asa cum am mai aratat, explicatia acestei  perspective inversate ( perpetuata cu dezinvoltura de unii specialisti contemporani in teoria automatelor ) provine din faptul ca stiinta moderna  a rupt  realul de potentialul – posibil ( decuplare modala ). Pot fi realizate  sisteme vii in sens larg in contextul cellular automata , pe baza de procedee combinativ – algoritmice ? Urmandu-l pe Roger PENROSE  (vezi “ Constiinta in sens larg – modelul cuantic “  ), eu consider ca raspunsul corect este  negativ , intrucat  fiintarea autentica presupune  ramanerea in posibil, in vreme ce modelele de  tip cellular automata se epuizeaza ( cel putin deocamdata ) in real, lipsindu-le  conexiunea cu situatia originara si, corelativ, procesul de acor-dare. In terminología bohmiana , pentru a fi viabile,  sistemele vii in sens larg trebuie sa  fie generate si, ulterior, absorbite de Intreg ( holomiscare ):  everything  emerges  by unfoldment , from the holomovement, then  enfolds back into the implicate order.  Holomiscarea reprezinta asadar situatia originara , generativ – disolutiva  pentru toate sistemele  finite, derivate. Se poate afirma deci  ( cu Platon si Hegel ) ca  la inceput a fost situatia ( proiectul, ideea ). In lucrarea sa “ Devenirea intru fiinta “ ( Editura st. si enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1981, pag.207 ) C. NOICA subliniaza la randul lui statutul preferential al situatiei : “ La inceput a fost situatia …principiile si categoriile sunt ele insele desprinse dintr-o situatie.” De subliniat  ca admiterea existentei unui mare atractor in spatiul morfogenetic al biologiei  ( sau enuntul echivalent: legea formei precede  emergenta formei ca atare ) reprezinta  un mod alternativ de a spune : la inceput a fost situatia. In fine, sa notam  ca dimensiunea  finala  in oricare intreg viu , implica o dezvoltare directionata  nu arbitrar, nici  de vreun agent / scop misterios  ( de ordinul  lui “ the ghost in the machine “ ) ci de  o situatie originara. Consideratii  similare , de tip morfogenetic specific , pot si trebuie sa fie extinse si asupra   chimiei , intrucat si aici era nevoie de o buna punere a problemei fiintei. Chimistii moderni sustin , in mod realist – naiv ,  ca intrucat  moleculele  sunt compuse din atomi,  atomismul   trebuie sa fie considerat  fundamental. Sa  examinam  schema ( abstracta ) de reactie   A + B  = C unde C reprezinta produsul final ( molecular ). Inca  in 1890 si dupa , chimistul rus Nikolai  MENSHUTKIN a atras atentia ca nici o reactie nu poate fi  modelata  facandu-se abstractie de  mediul de reactie, sau in termeni non-cartesieni ,  de totalitatea ” vie ” care inglobeaza  subsistemele A,B,C, si  care , asa cum a precizat  dupa  1954  N.N.SEMIONOV , trebuie sa contina : reactanti, co-reactanti, catalizatori, solventi , peretii reactorului, adausuri, impuritati, produsi intermediari, produsi finali, energie,..Acest inventar ( totusi realist )  este impresionant , dar este  oare el si suficient pentru a constitui o situatie  originara autentica? Evident, nu: fiecare dintre subsistemele  mentionate, precum si sistemul  global,  trebuie considerate  solidar cu starile  potential – posibile corelative , altfel  syntegrarea nu se poate constitui, ramanand suspendata undeva intre ” intregul cartesian ” ( holism in sens ingust ) si intregul autentic. Iar acest intreg autentic  reprezinta concretizarea cerintelor unei  legi  morfogenetice  pre-existenta in potentialul posibil, fara de care nici A,B nici C nu ar putea aparea si supravietui in mediul de reactie: rezulta ca A,B,C sunt realitati chimice nefundamentale, ele nefiind  simplu date ci acor-date, conform unei situatii originare  fundamentale, implicate.

Physis – fiintarea autentica

Traditional natura insasi nu a fost considerata ca o totalitate autentica , vie , savantii moderni identificand adesea natura in intregul ei cu  natura lineara.  Iata cateva exemple tipice de imagini trunchiate despre   natura / fiinta,  care au  conditionat  prelungirea ” validitatii”  imaginii cartesiene despre lume ca masina  cu multe decenii dincolo de  bornele istorice normale : Imaginea mecanicista : Natura / fiinta  cunoaste numai  cauzalitatea  mecanica – Fr. Bacon . Implicatie:  orice forma de  cauzalitate nemecanica ( model final, etc. ) este  mistica sau pseudo-stiintifica. Imaginea linearista :  Natura / fiinta  cunoaste doar rationalitatea  lineara – J.P.Sartre. In natura nu exista proces generativ – G.W.F. Hegel. Implicatie : orice forma de rationalitate  alternativa ( generativa,  nelineara )  reprezinta o investitie umana, ilegitima. Imaginea determinista : Stocasticitatea  este  extrinseca, neesentiala , perturbatoare – G.W.H.Hegel . Implicatie: Probabilitatea moderna  este o ” stare a mintii ” fiind conditionata  de ignoranta  subiectului privind sistemul. Dezvoltarile recente  din dinamica – in mod special  dinamica stocastica – nu-si gasesc locul  in cartesianism aparand ca  o …contradictie in termeni. Imaginea realist – dogmatica : Este real numai ceea ce  poate fi conceput ca  obiect – A.Einstein. Implicatie : constiinta, spiritul , potentialul – posibil, timpul, inseparabilitatea, etc. raman in afara realului, fiind iluzorii ( spooky = fantomatice ), abordarea lor stiintifica fiind inconsistenta , nejustificata. Orice lector de buna credinta va observa imediat ca  spooky sunt de fapt tocmai aceste imagini provenind fie dintr-o cunoastere  funciar incompleta, fie, mai recent , dintr-un imobilism metodologic alimentat de dorinta de a bloca (sau macar de a intarzia ) mersul cunoasterii spre fiinta / fiintarea autentica. Problematizarea ideii de “ viu “, promovand continuitatea / inseparabilitatea dintre  fizic si biologic,  a devenit necesara – si posibila  – abia in  contextul metodologiei non- cartesiene. In adevar , viul in sens larg este un model – concept incompatibil cu rationalitatea linear- echilibriala  care trateaza sistemele ca pe niste formatiuni inchise / izolate , aflate la echilibru,  mediul insusi fiind considerat  omogen, izotrop si rece. Situatia physis  este alternativa noastra , contemporana la  “ situatia  linear – echilibriala “ care a constituit  mai bine de 3 secole  baza metodologica  de neclintit a stiintei moderne ( physis provine din limba greaca : phyo = a creste , a ( se ) dezvolta ). Physis acest cuvant  fundamental  al metafizicii occidentale  ( conform M. Heidegger ), considerat  uneori ca intraductibil,  vizeaza totusi  fiinta / fiintarea  insa  nu simpla fiintare data, ceea ce ar fi  insuficient , banal,  ci o fiintare conforma cu  esenta / situatia  originara a fiintei ( = fiintare autentica ). Trasatura definitorie a  situatiei physis o constituie  deschiderea  spre potentialul – posibil care asigura totalitatilor vii  abilitatea de a face alegeri alternative, de a se dezvolta nu prin eliminare ( anihilare ) ci prin potentializare , precum si de a beneficia de directionarea  evolutiei de catre Intreg ( acor – dare ).Toate cerintele metodologice prezentate  ca fiind obligatorii pentru viul in sens larg ( expuse intr-un  paragraf  anterior ) se regasesc ca atare in  “ situatia physis “. In situatia physis  ( semnificand  in esenta departe de echilibru si in conditii nelineare sau, cu alte cuvinte – activarea posibilului (  vezi sectiunea Caracterul probabilist al cunoasterii contemporane , paragraful Activarea posibilului , pentru detalii ),  sistemele ( subsistemele ) devin instabile  / sensitive la fluctuatii interne si / sau externe  si,  prin urmare  , susceptibile de alegeri  neunivoce , alternative,  ceea ce se poate reprezenta prin diagrama bifurcatiei ;  punctul P , Fig.6 , numit de mine ” punct Prigogine “ ,  este un punct de mare relevanta metodologica , el marcand  de fapt   intrarea sistemului in istoricitatea autentica sau , intr-o exprimare alternativa , momentul in care sistemul devine viu in sens larg. Fig1 Fig.6  Diagrama alegerii neunivoce ( bifurcatia asimetrica).  AP  =  traiect  linear al   dezvoltarii ( “ schimbare fara schimbare ” ).  PDF ( PE ) =  traiect nelinear ( schimbare imprevizibila ) Totul ca fiinta ,  nu doar omul: Natura ca physis C.Noica  afirma ca lui Heidegger  i-a lipsit un operator integrativ de ordinul prepozitiei  intru ( into in engleza ). Cred ca intr-o masura cel putin egala , marele filosof german ar fi beneficiat din plin de categoria metodologica “ situatia physis ‘  care i-ar fi permis sa  conceapa fiinta / fiintarea in sens larg, conferind astfel Dasein-ului  atat legitimitate istorica  ( continuitate la diferite paliere de organizare materiala ) cat si  universalitate : totul ca fiinta  nu doar omul (animalul, planta ) ci si  sistemele inanimate aflate in  situatia physis ,  in mod special, natura ca physis, care re-include omul  deopotriva ca esenta fizica si spirituala.

Tao sau Physis?

Ultimele decenii au reliefat  un adevar pe cat de surprinzator pe atat de incomod  si anume : civilizatia  occidentala , dincolo de jocul  de artificii  derutant , amagitor , nu are fundamentalitate, fiind  intemeiata , ca si cunoasterea moderna  , pe o serie de valori , modele, categorii, principii  particulare, locale , dezintegratoare. Spre exemplu astazi  suntem nevoiti sa admitem nefundamentalitatea cogito-ului cartesian care s-a epuizat in  intelectie ( calcul ) , rupandu-se  deliberat si periculos de  radacinile emotionale ( sentio, volio ) – sursa sigura de vitalitate / autenticitate. La o examinare atenta , fara prejudecati oportuniste, mistificatoare, vom observa ca politica , economia , invatamantul, medicina ,… si-au pierdut progresiv autenticitatea , fiind amenintate  de esuarea in simulacru ( o esuare asistata de computer ): alegeri trucate ( uitarea post-electorala a Intregului si promovarea  agresiva a intereselor partii : partid, grup,..) , management economic trucat ( = manipulare ), asistenta medicala trucata ( manipularea extrem de profitabila a simptomelor, ignorarea sau chiar subminarea  vindecarii ), invatamant ” sterilizat “, fara afectivitate, fara Intreg , familii trucate, fericire trucata ( droguri, confort ), alimentatie trucata ( junk food ),  apa  trucata, s.a.m.d. Se poate afirma  ca principala primejdie  care amenita in momentul de fata civilizatia occidentala  o constituie nu poluarea in sine, nu super-bacteriile sau super-teroristii  ci  perpetuarea inertiala ,generalizata, asimptomatica a cartesianismului intr-o lume esentialmente ne-cartesiana. Cum s-a ajuns aici ? Raspunsul metodologiei :  O serie – neincheiata! – de rupturi metodologice a /au scos  in mod  silentios  fiinta / fiintarea  autentica din coerenta originara. Iata cateva dintre aceste rupturi / decuplari:  Platon – Idei si  lucruri ( lumea de umbre ); Platon si Aristotel:  poiesis  si techne  ( primul impuls al tehnologismului );  Galileo :  calitate si cantitate ; Descartes  : subiect si obiect, materie si spirit; decuplarea modala: real / posibil;  Kant : stiinta si intelepciune ; Marx : munca si capital; formalismul: sintaxa si semantica, etc. In vederea unei recuperari – inca posibile – a fundamentalitatii astazi suntem determinati sa  identificam si sa promovam  cu toate fortele  si pretutindeni  totalitatile autentice, viul ( inclusiv “ viul in sens larg”, trans-biologic ), precum si  fiintarea autentica . Un astfel de imperativ  este foarte difícil de indeplinit intrucat, asa cum ne-a avertizat  Heidegger , contemporanii nostri sunt ( inca ) orbiti de real si , corelativ,   orbi  fata de Physis. Tao / Taoismul impotriva  abordarilor moderne : urmati cursul naturii! Ce inseamna Tao ( Dao )? Tao / Taoismul ( Daoismul ) reprezinta o invatatura  a Chinei antice, elaborata  cam cu 4.800 ani in urma de catre shamanul  Fu Hsi (  citeste : Fu Shi ) si sistematizata , mult mai tarziu , cam cu 400 ani i.C., de catre  Lao-Tze in cartea sa  Tao Te Ching ( originalul – pierdut , a fost transmis  pe cale orala ). Chuang – Tze ( sau Zhuang-Tze )  un contemporan al Maestrului Lao ( Lao-Tze ), a contribuit si el la sistematizarea ( aproape didactica )  a taoismului shamanic originar, cei doi oferindu-ne  o varianta filosofica (  Dao Jia ) si una religioasa ( Dao Jiao ). In cele ce urmeaza  voi urma in mod special  taoismul filosofic  cunoscut ca  “ Lao- Zhuang Philosophy “. Mentionez ca mentorii mei occidentali in Taoism  au fost unii dintre cei mai bine cotati translatori / comentatori si anume: Lionel Giles ,  Alan Watts, Derek Lin  si Jos Slabbert. Ce este ( si ce nu este ) Tao ? Tao – eternul, autenticul Tao – nu poate fi definit sau numit  decat cu pretul atenuarii esentei sale ( spirituale ! ) de  realitate creativa suprema. Sau , in traducerea lui Derek Lin , Chap.1 (  Tao Te Ching, published by SkyLight Paths, in 2006 – vezi si www. Taoism.net , permission to quote granted ): “ The Tao that can be spoken is not the eternal Tao The name that can be named  is not the eternal name The nameless  is the origin  of Haven and Earth The named  is the mother of myriad things.” In traducerile / comentariile / adnotarile  studiate de mine ,  raspunsurile privind natura lui Tao  sunt polarizate , cele doua aspecte  majore ( partial suprapuse ) fiind : 1.  raspunsul metodologic ( usor  predominant ): Tao este drumul , calea , metoda , principiul ( “ Tao is the Great Principle” ) si 2. raspunsul ontologic vizand atat crearea  intregului Univers : Lao-Tze numeste Tao “ the Mother of All Things “, cat si  eterna revenire intru spirit a tuturor sistemelor materiale ( things ) expirate : “All things end in Tao, as rivers  flow  into the sea”. Cateva  sublinieri : i. fiind cursul insusi al Naturii ( dar nu Natura in sine! ), Tao este impersonal si  fara optiuni etice , neavand nimic in comun cu “ binele” si “ raul ” ; ii. Tao creeaza / genereaza  lumea materiala  fara a se amesteca cu ea si, mai cu seama , fara  a-si diminua esenta spirituala , revenirea la Tao fiind conditionata de  o de-realizare, de- personalizare prealabila . Jos Slabbert: “All these thoughts, words arranged on paper Come from the Tao and return to the Tao Yet they do not touch it.” ( sublinierea mea, FF ) Principalul mesaj ( metodologic ) al taoismului pentru lumea contemporana   vizeaza re-conectarea  omului cu Natura ( inclusiv  cu natura umana  interna , ignorata sau stresata pana la refuz ) de care a fost rupt atat prin actiunea fortata (excesiva ) a tehnicii cat si prin gandirea dualista inautentica ( rationalitatea linear -analitica ) promovata inca  la scara universala de catre cartesianism. In acest context ,  alternativa autentica de referinta o constituie  ” the non-dualistic world of the spirit.” Conceptele – cheie  ale Tao  sunt: 1. Yin si Yang : intregul Univers , de la lucrurile cele mai marunte  la fenomenele cosmice si de la  starea de sanatate a persoanei la  marile miscari sociale  se bazeaza pe balansarea fluctuanta a  acestor  2 energii ( actiuni , atitudini umane ). “ Yin and Yang is Tao .” Iata  cateva dintre  manifestarile atribuite uzual acestor energii polare – Yin  / Yang  inseamna : intuneric / lumina; slab / puternic; stanga/ dreapta; noapte / zi; iarna / vara , etc. In Fig. 8 b  este prezentat modelul conurilor introdus de mine   cu doua decenii in urma ca alternativa occidentala la modelul oriental yin-yang; modelul conurilor,  mai putin metaforic, nu este   o imitatie  ci  provine nemijlocit  din istoria de idei Western  ( colapsul dualismului ); principalele avantaje metodologice ale  acestui model  sunt :  prezentarea distincta a  starilor T  ( aspect fuzzy  definitoriu pentru intreaga cunoastere contemporana ) si explicitarea  modului in care intregii autentici apar , prin  suprapunerea graduala a valorilor contradictorii A si non-A ( a se vedea si Sinteza cu armonizator ). Fig_8 2. Wu ( stare pura, spirituala, emptiness ): pentru a putea percepe – si urma – tendinta Tao  intr-o anumita situatie, inteleptul trebuie sa-si pastreze mintea intr-o stare de puritate / liniste , golita de orice  prejudecati, idei, dorinte, impulsuri conflictuale, excesive si arogante. Derek Lin, Chap. 29: ” the sage eliminates  extremes, eliminates  excess, eliminates arrogance.” Pentru a-si pastra starea de liniste nealterata  Chuang- Tze ii recomanda inteleptului sa stea cat mai departe de lumea inconjuratoare ” corupta si haotica”. 3.Wu Wei ( principiul inactiunii, meditatia , nondoing ): intr-o lume tensionata, marcata profund de  lupta  pentru dominatia asupra naturii sau/ si  a semenilor , Tao Te Ching recomanda  relaxarea, meditatia, abtinerea . Nu fortati lucrurile, adevaratul control  al unei situatii (locale ) se realizeaza fara efort , pe cale spirituala . In particular nu incercati sa  controlati / corectati Natura , ea fiind un instrument sacru, deja acordat: urmati  cursul natural al evenimentelor , urmati Natura!  Chap. 29 : ” The World  is a sacre instrument / One  cannot control it. ” 4. Te ( caracteristici / insusiri naturale, Qualia )   ” Te “, acest cuvant  semnificativ, facand parte din insusi titlul  operei lui Lao-Tze ( Tao Te Ching ) are in vedere calitatile naturale  pe care Tao le atribuie / distribuie  , pe cale spirituala , oricarei fiinte vii. Conceptul ” Te ” este foarte apropiat de spiritul acestui blog, in care este afirmata in mod consecvent existenta in potentialul posibil  a unei / unor situatii modelatoare aflate la originea  tuturor sistemelor vii in sens larg; ” Te ” vine, de asemenea , foarte aproape de ” esentele originare “ heideggeriene care confera autenticitate  ( si salvare ) Dasein-ului precum si de formele potentiale  distincte ( Eidos-urile platoniciene ) care , conform lui Roger Penrose ghideaza , din profunzimile existentei, formarea si functionarea  constiintei / gandirii.Pentru toate cele 3 pozitii metodologice  alternative  ( dar, in fond , convergente ) mi se pare deosebit de  sugestiv ” motivul radacinii ”  invocat intr-o fraza  aparent ( doar ) poetica  din Chap. 16:  ” each returns  to its roots “. Daca aceste radacini exista  si sunt implicate efectiv  in dublu sens  ( atat  in procesele de actualizare  cat si in cele de potentializare ), ele pot si trebuie sa fie introduse in orice ecuatie / modelare existentiala care tinde spre completitudine. Physis !..  ( urmeaza ) X Dincolo de Descartes  intalnim o lume  fabuloasa  pe care abia  incepem sa o descifram. Cu adevarat uimitor este insa nu atat faptul ca aceasta lume non-cartesiana exista cu adevarat ci ca ea se revela a fi una  fundamentala.

Intracellular Copper Overload – the Western Metabolic Bomb

Posted by on Friday, 4 September, 2009

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Protect Your Family From Toxic Products and Medications

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COPPER OVERLOAD ( Cubound ↑↑ ) – THE WESTERN METABOLIC BOMB

  ” If we are going to discover nature’s form, it is probably imperative to drive as hard as possible at the critical  points  of mystery.” Henry P. STAPP ( 1989 )


” The EPSICO model  ( EPS = Excessive Prolonged Stress ) centered on the  ICO = Intracellular Copper Overload  =  the indisputable Generator of all chronic diseases; connecting the emotional and physiological realms, it could become the biochemical core of the  New American Medicine. “

Modern ( conventional ) medicine is very proficient at handling acute care, mainly due to the advanced technology and to the drastically simplified picture of most emergency ( crisis ) situations. However, in the field of chronic disorders, things are very different; despite some local successes, it became clearly that modern medicine experiences serious difficulties when approaching the etiology of chronic diseases. This chronic counter-performance could be explained by ignoring or superficially approaching the essential connection between stress, individual mineral status ( especially the intracellular copper overload – Cu↑) and, correlatively, copper interference toxicity – CIT, a chronic form of mineral toxicity that plays a unique role in the etiology of all chronic diseases – infectious, inflammatory and degenerative.
The main conclusion of this study ( EPSICO model ) is that the true generator of the epidemic of chronic diseases is not the genes, nor the germs, and nor the chronic / silent / hidden inflammation – all these are no more than some important modulators – but the intracellular copper overload – the master metabolic imbalance of the contemporary Western  society.

By reading carefully this  unusual paper ( refused shortly by a notorious  mainstream medical journal ) you’ll understand – as specialists or laymen -some of the  ” biggest mysteries ” of the contemporary medicine  ( I’ve stubbornly studied them for decades  in  Brasov and Evanston ). For instance :

–  the definitely lack of progress  in  understanding / preventing / treating of  cancer(s) :  Copper overload ( neglected  by the most cancer  experts )   incredibly increases the apoptotic resistance ( biological stability )  of  cancerous cells , concomitantly diminishing  the vitality of the  healthy cells; I think it’s  a very… promising starting point  for a decisive / generalized  application of …chemotherapy, don’t you  ?);

Cu ↑ constitutes the shortest way  towards  a …firm, inescapable  obesity ( via : Cu ↑ → Cr ↓, etc. ); what the numbers say: 66% of Americans are copper dominant / chromium defficient, while 65 % are overweight. A mere coincidence ?


– Dehydration problem can’t be solved simply by drinking  8 ( or more ) water cups / daily because,  due to the same copper overload ,the cells  are / remain  deficient in : choline, sodium, aldosterone ( all being  …reputed copper antagonists! );

– Frequent  accidents  of the first class sportsmen / women  are due  mainly to  a ligamentous laxity  , caused by the chronic deficiency of Manganese: Cu ↑ → Mn ↓, correlatively, their poor healing of ( chronic  ) wounds  being due to : Cu ↑ → Hyaluronic acid ↓ ;

 

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Abbreviations: EPS = excessive, prolonged stress; CIT = copper interference toxicity;
EPS/ICO = excessive, prolonged stress / intracellular copper overload.
MT = metallothionein or stress protein; Cuf ↓= functional copper deficiency, produced by intracellular copper overload ( Cu↔ MT)↑, according to the scheme:
EPS→ Cortisol↑ → MT↑ →(Cu↔MT)↑ →  Cuf↓

Attention: All information on this site is for general education purposes only. Because  everybody is  different , you have to  contact your doctor to establish  the best treatment / protocol  for your specific condition.

1. The most important sources of chronicity

Chronicity is a multifactorial process, the three most important factors being:

1.1 Progressive demineralization of the soil – uncompensated exhaustion of some essential minerals and notorious copper antagonists, such as: chromium ( Cr ), zinc ( Zn ), manganese ( Mn )…

1.2 EPS → Cu↑ → Cr↓, Zn↓, Mn↓

2 out of 3 Americans are copper dominant. The tendency to absorb /retain too much copper is typical for Western societies, currently under a debilitating stress; in normal stress conditions, the copper absorption / retention is about 30 % from the daily intake, while EPS raises this parameter to 80 %.

1.3 Industrial refining of food ( grains / carbohydrates, oils, salt ); for instance, obtaining white flour from whole wheat leads to 92 % loss of the initial content ( already diminished, see 1.1 ) of Cr, Zn, Mn.

2. C I T ( copper interference toxicity ) – a metabolic downward spiral

EPS →(Cu ↔MT)↑ =  CIT → Downregulation of antagonists & upregulation of agonists → Hypoadrenalism / Hypothyroidism / Immune System Malfunction → CHRONIC DISEASES ( infectious: Cu↑↓; degenerative: Cu↔MT↑; inflammatory: Cuf↓ )

Intracellular copper overload determines the intracellular, stable depletion of copper antagonists, with serious implications in distortion of mineral and general metabolism:

(Cu↔MT)↑ → Cr↓, Zn↓, Mn↓, S↓( sulfur ), Se↓(selenium ),Vitamin C complex↓, vitamin A ↓, Complex B ↓

Copper overload causes also a stable over- retention ( excess) of its synergists, especially calcium: (Cu↔MT)↑ → Ca↑ ( calcium ), ( Mg↑↓ ). Magnesium , though a copper antagonist, has a special/ better place being a calcium, zinc and chromium agonist. The particular importance of this overlooked chronic toxicity ( CIT ) is that no management of chronic problems ( symptoms, syndromes, diseases ) could be optimal once the intracellular copper overload is present. Only by bringing and maintaining the copper level within the physiological range – accomplished by synergistic procedures – all chronic conditions could be efficiently controlled, from joint laxity and low back pain to diabetes complications, cancers and beyond.

3. Copper Overload = Inefficient Metabolic Regulation

Chromium depletion: ( Cu↔MT)↑ → Cr↓

Chromium depletion constitutes a basic factor of human overweight: 66 % of the Americans are copper dominant / chromium deficient, while 65 % are overweight. Why is the chromium deficiency so massive and so  difficult to control in our  Western societies ? Here is my answer:

Copper ( Cu )  ↑ → Cr ↓

Sugar  ↑  →  Cr ↓

Calcium ( Ca )  ↑ → Cr ↓

Potassium ( K )↑ → Cr ↓

Iron ( Fe ) ↑ → Cr ↓

Cr↓ is the major contributor to the so called “ mineral resonances “ which explain why the chronic diseases are sometimes closely related:

Insulin resistance, underactive  adrenals:  Cr↓

Diabetes: Cr↓, Zn↓, Mg↓, Mn↓

Obesity: Cr↓, Zn↓, Mg↓, Ca↑.

Any regular treatment of these conditions can’t provide optimal and lasting results  as long as the ratio Cr↓/ Cu↑ is not normalized.

Zinc depletion: (Cu↔MT)↑ → Zn↓

Sexual dysfunction of the Western population is centered on Zn deficiency. Zinc is still under-evaluated in all Western societies. For instance, people recognize that our soil is low in zinc, our diet is zinc deficient and our life is high in stress ( EPS →( Cu↔MT )↑ → Zn↓ ), however, the same people renovate their houses, replacing the galvanized (zinc) pipes with copper pipes ( leading to about  1.0 mg Cu ↑ /day / person ). It is metabolically counter-indicated to prescribe zinc ( Zn→ MT ↑ → (Cu↔MT)↑ ) to increase the sex drive if EPS / CIT is present since, this way, the estrogenization is amplified ( copper parallels estrogen: Cu↑→ Zn↓ → aromatase↑ → estrogen↑ ). Important to know :  taking Zn greatly  increases the induced  MT,  but because copper has a MT affinity much higher than Zinc, the  retention of  Zn will be drastically diminished and, correlatively , the  intracellular copper stores      ( and the ratio Cu / Zn  ) become  higher than  beforehand.

Statins or Superoxide dismutase ( SOD )?

Decreasing cholesterol is just a modulator ; more important is to strengthen the antioxidant protection, especially by correcting the usual deficient SOD enzyme , induced  according to the diagram:
(Cu↔MT)↑ → Cuf↓, Zn↓ →Cu,Zn SOD↓ → Superoxide Anion↑→ LDL C oxidation

Vitamin C deficiency : ( Cu↔MT)↑ → vitamin C↓ → Silent scurvy

Why are the Western populations prone to gum disease? Statistics show that most Americans reaching 60-65 years, being copper dominant , lost their teeth, despite intensively practicing mechanical procedures such as brushing and flossing. To correct this deficiency , vitamin C complex , meaning ascorbic acid ( as “pure” vitamin C – the old hexuronic acid ) associated with bioflavonoids ( such as rutin and hesperidin ) as metabolic enhancers, seems to be the best option. However, administering vitamin C  when CIT is present, doesn’t lead automatically to an increase of the vit.C content in the intra- or extracellular compartments, but , first of all, it contributes to a decrease of toxic deposits of copper (and calcium).This explains why many patients don’t have any normal antioxidant symptoms only after ingesting megadoses ( 5,000 mg vit.C / day or more). Note: under stress ( EPS ),   the metabolic requirements  of the body for some nutrients   ( especially the copper antagonists ) are greatly ( 10 – 100 times ) increased. This should  be a very good news for  some  mega – experts since we can establish as many  Pauling ( and,  correlatively , ortho- medicines ) as  copper antagonists, namely : vitamin C ( sorry, the job is done ), sulfur, chromium,  a.s.o.

Silent ( asymptomatic ) implications of the copper imbalance:

Silent acidosis : Cu↑ → Ca i ↓, Mg i ↓ ( Me i = mineral in soluble,ionic state );

Silent scurvy: Cu↑→vitamin C ↓;

silent infection: Cu↑↓;

silent inflammation: Cuf↓;

silent degeneration : Cu↑ → XIAP↓( lowering the normal cell apoptotic threshold);

Copper pipes Copper found in our drinking water and food may play a role in the onset of  Alzheimer’s disease and other ” silent ” implications  ( Courtesy: Medical News Today )

silent estrogenization: Cu↑→Zn↓→ aromatase↑;

silent overweight : Cu ↑ → Cr ↓ ; Cu ↑ → Ca ↑

silent dehydration: Cu↑→ choline↓, sodium↓;

silent hypertension: Cu↑→Cuf↓→Lox activity↓→ arterial fibrosis (collagen deposition)…

silent hypothyroidism : Cu ↑ → Zn ↓, Mn ↓, Se ↓,… ( T4–⁄→ T3 )

silent cancer : Cu ↑→ Zn ↓ → vitamin A ↓ ( abnormal cell differentiation / proliferation );

silent heart failure: Cu↑ → Cu f↓, Zn ↓, Mn ↓→ Cu, Zn SOD ↓; MnSOD ↓  → ( mitochondrial / intracellular hyperoxidative stress )

silent dementia :  due to impaired  adrenals & liver activity → copper / zinc imbalance  leading to over-stimulation of the emotional brain ( di – encephalon) 

silent Alzheimer’s : Cu↑ ( due to age, etc. ) → pseudo- chaperone effect  of the  beta- amyloid proteins → plaque formation

Courtesy: Google.com

Notes:

1. It is currently asserted that Alzheimer’s  ( and / or dementia ) is incurable. I strongly disagree . I consider that we are actually  dealing  with a  unique ( but very  complex! ) problem of copper toxicity  ( intra and extra- cellular ,having as modulators some other toxic metals like  Fe, Zn, Hg, Cd,…; complex means  not just direct  hyper-oxidative effect, not  just  sub/ under or over-methylation ,… but equally  – or more exactly  especially-  copper interference toxicity  = CIT , according  to our model . A main correlative, aggravating  aspect  is  the deficiency of  copper controlling proteins  such as MT ( metallothionein ) and CP ( ceruloplasmin ) involving some exhausted ( aged, etc.  ) adrenals  : EPS → weak adrenals → cortisol ↓ → MT ↓, mainly leading  to a lack of sequestration = the main   mechanism of  controlling   copper overload and, implicitly, to the   imbalance  of a crucial  ( emotional ) ratio: copper / zinc,  as well  as to a lack of  preventing  – by the drastic different affinities – of  the  toxic involving of  beta-amyloid proteins in  pseudo-chaperone effects leading  finally to the formation of ” plaque”. What we have to do, in my opinion, is to look for some  efficient , synergistic  strategies aiming to bring and maintain   the intra-cellular  copper level  and  the production  of MT / CP  within the normal  ( highly individualized ! ) physiological range.

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Cateva precizari adresate  in mod special  colegilor din Romania ( ca si nespecialistilor  direct interesati ) privind implicarea copper overload  in formarea  beta – amyloid- plaque, in spatiul extracelular  ( vezi Fig. de mai sus ),  precum si  sugestii pt. preventia / tratamentul AD  cu ajutorul unor chelatori metalici specifici . Exista inca nu putini  cercetatori – autori care  considera contributia -cheie a copper la formarea placii  senile ca fiind inacceptabila  datorita  unor particularitati  functionale  cum ar fi  concentratia insuficienta a ionilor de cupru in compartimentul vizat, afinitatea  prea redusa a  subsistemelor  implicate ( beta  amyloid peptides ) fata de acesti ioni, etc. Cea mai concludenta  abordare / explicitare a  acestor  rezerve o ofera  articolul  publicat de un grup de cercetatori  britanici ( Univ. of London )  , condus de C.D.SYME  si intitulat “ Copper Binding to the Amyloid – Beta  Peptide Associated with Alzheimer ‘s Disease ” ( J.Biol. Chemistry, 2004, vol. 279 / 18, p. 18169 ). Citez un pasaj clarificator:
“There is now direct evidence that copper is bound  to Amyloid – Beta ( AB ) peptide in senile plaque of Alzheimer’s disease. Copper is also linked  with the neurotoxicity of AB and free radical damage, and Cu2+ chelators represent a possible therapy  for Alzheimer’s disease.” 

Studiul  colegilor londonezi face cateva trimiteri  semnificative  (inclusiv referitoare la dizolvarea placii  toxice de catre  chelatori bine alesi ) dintre care  eu recomand in special cele 3 references (  nr, 14;24; 25  )  semnate de  ATWOOD C.S., CHERNY  R.A. , DONG J. , and coll.  Un paper  mai recent  ( 2012 ) , scotand in evidenta , de asemenea rolul chelatorilor metalici  este semnat de  gruparea condusa de  GENG J.  ( J.Med. Chem, 55 / 21 , pp 9146-55 ).

In opinia mea – bazata atat pe cercetarile proprii  cat si pe  concluziile altor  specialisti, cel mai specific chelator pt. Cu2+ este resveratrol-ul , care poate fi utilizat  atat in preventie cat si in tratamentul AD. Intrucat  acest ” trifenol ” natural ( denumire sistematica : 3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene ) este ” ridicol de ieftin “, el neputand fi ” imitat ”  ( sintetizat ) in laborator ( si daca totusi ar fi , pacientii naturisti au la dispozitie  o sursa  pe cat de accesibila pe atat de…delicioasa =the  red wine / vinul rosu ). Fraza anterioara explica  faptul  ca resveratrol-ul nu este promovat  de catre medicina si farmacologia conventionala al caror obiectiv major il constituie nu optimizarea  starii de sanatate  ( health / wellness ) a populatiei ci  realizarea   unui profit maxim, repet : MAXIM. Prezint in continuare cateva dintre performantele  general-protective ( in perspectiva deopotriva profilactica  si curativa ) ale resveratrol-ului, conform  jurnalului “Natural Health News Report”  issue # 120 :

                             ” Resveratrol protects you from Head to Toe”:

– Healthy heart, arteries ( promoting  normal cholesterol levels  and  healthy homocysteine  concentration );

– fortifies your immunity by fighting free radicals;

– prevents  oxidation of fatty foods ( for cardiovascular boost );

– protects brain  and memory ( brain = more than 90 % fat ! );

– maintains healthy veins , circulation and blood pressure ( red wine acting as a vasodilator );

– keeps skin looking young, tight , fresh…

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 I like to underline that my optimistic conclusion is  based on   some  remarkable  accomplishments  due to a series of  dedicated researchers  such as: Anne Louise GITTLEMAN, Paul C. ECK, Lisa MILLER,  James L. WILSON, Carl PFEIFFER ( d. in 1988 ), William  J.WALSH, Emily MULLIN, Veronika A.SZALAI, Rashid DEANE, Yadong HUANG , Zhijian SU  and coll.  The  relevant  discovery of my conceptual friends from Northwestern University – Evanston ( Javeria HASMI and  A.V. APKARIAN’s team ) = the ” distant ” link between  chronic back pain associated with  marked changes  in  brain activity  is not at all  omitted / overlooked  by me , rather it is embedded in  general stress symbol “EPS”.

2. Don’t confuse the stress induced functional copper deficiency ( Cuf↓ ) – the major form of copper deficiency for the Western societies – and the copper nutritional deficiency, a rare, unlikely phenomenon.
Cuf↓ is defined as low availability of copper for intra –  and extracellular activity ( enzyme activation, etc.), despite of high copper stores in the body ( tissues, cells ).
For instance, lysyl oxidase inactivation due to copper deficiency, leads to diminished cross-linking collagen and elastin and, consequently, to connective tissue defects ( Steinmann et al, 1993 ). The two forms of copper deficiency (stress and malnutrition induced ) should be corrected by two radically different procedures: activation of intracellular copper overload versus normal copper supplementing.To prescribe copper supplements in the case of stress induced deficiency constitutes a “ toxic supplementation”, unfortunately frequently practiced with many Holocaust survivors.

Manganese depletion (connective tissue degeneration): (Cu↔MT)↑→ Mn↓

Human manganese deficiency is still underevaluated though it is involved in some major metabolic disorders such as: ligamentous laxity, poor healing of ( chronic ) wounds, improper thyroid function, etc. Before deciding for cortisone shots or for surgery ( knee, wrist, discectomy,..) – these interventions of last resort being able to amplify the local degeneration- the world class sportsmen / women need to assimilate a simple metabolic truth: it is high intracellular copper level ( that is the exceptional emotional overload, often unprofessionally compensated ) that contributes to a stable but reversible Mn deficiency and, correlatively, to inactivation of glycosyl transferase enzyme, that determine the most connective tissues defects. The same about CIT and poor healing of chronic wounds:

(Cu↔MT)↑ → Mn↓, ( Mg↓ ) → Hyaluronic acid↓.

4. Degeneration – a non-inflammatory issue. The Degenerator

Degeneration constitutes one of the most interesting problems of the contemporary, post-genomic medical science. Unfortunately, its specific approach is still slowed down because of the facile temptation to consider degeneration an annex of the inflammation ( Andre Weil, MD: ” Chronic inflammation just may be the root of all degenerative diseases “ ). Here are some of the most important methodological shortcomings that keep the degeneration category conceptually underdeveloped:

1. subevaluation of the stress role in starting and promoting degeneration – stress is often considered just a modulator, and with no genuine generator, an artificial and painful deterministic play follows between symptoms / effects: inflammation is the cause of degeneration ; infection is the cause of inflammation, etc …I called this comfortable swimming into the sea of effects / symptoms – the downstream syndrome of the contemporary medical research ( the idea of inactivating the caspase machinery to promote a regular apoptosis – while the upstream generator ( Cu↔MT)↑ remains untouched – is just one of the last, high tech examples).
2. the regular use of anti-inflammatory strategies / medications in situations that are totally or predominantly degenerative ( apoptotic degeneration );
3. the conceptual confusion between degeneration and degradation ( this way masking the fact that primary degenerative events take place not in ECM – extracellular matrix- but intracellularly ) : “ collagen and /or ECM degeneration” ( the correct term – degradation ) also, “ cartilage degradation “  ( the correct term – degeneration );

4. ignoring , confusing or underevaluating the MT’s ( metallothionein ) role in the normal and pathologic metabolism. Don’t confuse the acute copper toxicity ( due to mineral saturated MT ) and chronic copper toxicity ( CIT ) involving copper undersaturated MT.
Centered on cellular damage – the primary event in any degeneration – here is my  working definition of degeneration:

inefficient regulation of cell activity during post-injury healing and / or tissue turnover (development, disease state, aging ), resulting in a reduced tissue organization / cellularity ( excessive apoptosis ) and subsequently matrix degradation.
Special merits for differentiation between degenerative and inflammatory, go to some researchers from the tendinopathy field ( PUDDU G. et al.) who, since 1976, proposed to use the term ‘ tendinosis ” instead the incorrect term “ tendinitis “, every time the tendon degeneration is implied, without some clinical or histological signs of inflammation. Using our model, the two chronic conditions can be efficiently distinguished as follows:

tendinosis ( degeneration ) : (Cu↔MT)↑, Ca↑, Vitamin C↓
tendinitis / tendonitis ( inflammation ) : Cuf↓, Ca↓, vitamin C↑

A similar distinction ( though not separation ! ) between arthrosis / arthritis has been elaborated by this author (2006, unpublished work ).

Some reputed authors ( Johns Hopkins Univ., 2006 ) stated that presently is no cure for arthritis ; methodologically, this statement is already history since whether the main cause of arthropathy is the hidden copper imbalance, each of the traditionally admitted causes such as infection ( Cu↑↓), inflammation ( Cu↓ ) and…even  joint’s laxity ( Cu↑→ Mn↓ = degeneration ), could be controlled by bringing / maintaining copper within the physiological range.
Recent studies showed that there is an established connection between the stress ( emotional ) level, degeneration and apoptosis, Ap ( programmed cell death ). It could be concluded that there are two main types of degeneration: apoptotic ( with zero or minimal inflammation) and necrotic ( with relative high inflammation), having a gradual transition between the two types. The EPSICO model develops these new alignments, suggesting a series of fruitful molecular approaches based on the following main etiologic equation of degeneration:
EPS→ (Cu↔MT)↑→Cuf↓, Zn↓, Mn↓, vit C↓→Mt !→ Ap↑→ Tissue Degeneration
In the above sequence Mt! represents the mitochondria as a sensor of perturbation of cellular homeostasis by the CIT.
The entity ( Cu↔MT)↑→Cuf ↓,Zn↓,Mn↓,( Se↓,Cr↓), vit.C↓, essential in any degeneration, has been designated by me as Degenerator. For instance , the copper overload determines the activation of caspase machinery ( “ silent degeneration ”) :
Cu↑→ XIAP↓→ ( caspase machinery )↑→ lowering the normal cell apoptotic threshold ( XIAP designates a certain X- protein from the IAPs group of inhibitors of Ap).
Also, Cu↑ plays a major role in the carcinogenesis and cell cycle dysregulation,via TP53 mutants. The TP53 or p53 ( proteine ) is tumor suppressive ( pro-apoptotic ) in Zinc-wild state, but becomes anti-apoptotic in mutant states mainly generated by ( Cu↔MT)↑, this way contributing to the apoptotic resistance of the cancerous cells ( don’t confuse the two opposite contribution of the copper overload to apoptosis : while the normal cells are “debilitated ” the cancerous cells are protected ). Important to know : beyond this anti-apoptotic contribution , intracellular copper overload induces cells transformation ( carcinogenesis ) through: a.  intense , uncompensated oxidative stress ( Cu ↑ →Zn ↓ ,Cuf ↓ → Cu,Zn SOD ↓ ) and  b.  Cu ↑ → Zn ↓, vitamin A ↓ ( abnormal differentiation and proliferation ).

5. Instead of conclusions: some methodological challenges

One could wonder how it was possible that for an almost a century since it was established the nutritional essentiality of copper ( 1920 ), the modern researchers to ignore the role of the intracellular copper overload as a generator of the chronic diseases, respectively to ignore the non-Cartesian , emotional root ( nature ) of all chronic disorders. The main explanation of this extremely critical overlook is given by not taking in consideration or by  underevaluation of the 3 following essential connections:

a. The stress ( EPS ) / Metallothionein. Without this primary link, the EPS could not to surpass the status of a subsidiary / modulator factor.

b.The Metallothionein / Copper = the biounavailability riddle (see § 5.2 ),
c. Excessive copper→ deficient ( functional ) copper
. The main copper deficiency proved to be not a nutritional one but a weird deficiency induced by the copper overload ( Cu↔MT )↑→ Cu f ↓.
Finally, there are presented some relevant details concerning these connections.

5.1 Stress / MT the missing link in the classical theory of stress
“ The stress from any source generates copper imbalance ” – this phrase full of metabolic signification ( bridging the emotional and physiological realms ) has remained for a longtime at the margin of the modern medical research, as a purely descriptive statement, rebel to any trial of causal approach. The chances of transposing this into a coherent and quantifiable biochemical mechanism have considerable increased with the discovery of MT as a unique chelator for some electrophile agents, especially the metal ions such as Cu+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+. Fundamental progress in connecting the stress ( as primary emotional factor ) and the epidemic of chronic illnesses has been achieved in two distinct / inseparable stages:
5.1.1. The knowledge of the structural-functional characteristics of MT ( 1985 – 2005 ).
Mammalian studies showed that MT can bind 7 divalent metal ions :
Cu, Cd, Zn ( or, alternatively, 12 monovalent copper ions ) per protein molecule in TWO DISTINCT DOMAINS ( clusters ): the alpha cluster or the carbon terminal domain ( including 11 cysteine residues) and the Beta cluster or the nitrogen terminal domain ( containing 9 cysteine residues ). It is remarkable that the chelation promoted by the two domains is done SEQUENTIALLY- the fixation of the cations on the Beta domain happens only after the alpha domain has been saturated with electrophile agents.This fact – due to the net difference of affinity attributed to the two domains – allows an efficient delimitation between the stable sequestration of toxic heavy metals ( Cd2+ , Cu↑ ) on the alpha domain and the homeostatic regulation of the essential metals ( Cuf, Zn ) essentially distributed on the Beta domain.
5.1.2. The second stage (2002 – 2006 ) dedicated to the verification of the hypothesis according to which the synthesis of the MT could be easily induced IN VIVO by glucocorticoid hormones, especially cortisol:

EPS → Cortisol ↑ → MT ↑

5.2 The Copper Biounavailability Riddlea new mineral ratio concept

The right solution of the copper biounavailability problem was late by several decades due to the preference given by the medical establishment to some plausible ( but false ) current analytical clichés such as: a. the copper deficiency is a very unlikely phenomenon, even in the case of a suboptimal nutrition and b. the copper overload cannot exist but in some exceptional cases ( mutations, accidents ). In this context, the copper biounavailability was sometimes looked at as… a simple biochemical curiosity or, at othertimes, it was considered as a sleeper phenomenon associated with dehydration. In reality, we deal with a new understanding of the mineral ratio concept, when the excess of one mineral ( intracellular Cu↑) determines the deficiency of the same mineral found in a different metabolic state ( Cu functional, intra- and extracellular). Note – in passing- that in mammals, the copper deficiency leads to the iron deficiency as Fe2+ , the only soluble, assimilable form : ( Cu ↔MT )↑ and / or Mo↑→ Cuf ↓ ( → Fe2+ ↓ ). This detail should be suggestive for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ( Mad Cow disease ) research, and for its human counterpart ( Creutzfeld – Jakob disease ), both based on a deep imbalanced mineral metabolism ( Cu , Fe, Zn ); Mo = Molibdenum.
The copper biounavailability conceived as sequestration, is based on the large difference of affinity of the coordinative bonds generated by the two domains (clusters ) of MT: relatively recent studies, due especially to the group led by the Swiss professor KAGI G. H. ( presently retired ) , showed that the Cadmium binding sites generated by the alpha domain of MT are 30 times more stable than those generated by the Beta domain. Transposing this result into the copper biochemistry ( important to know:  the affinity  of  Copper to MT is even  higher than that of the Cadmium ! ) one can conclude that copper from system becomes biounavailable, being preferentially fixed on the MT alpha domain ( sequestration ). Considering that excessive ionic ( free, soluble ) copper is much more dangerous than the functional copper deficiency, it results that the copper biounavailability represents a particularly valuable adaptive acquisition into the field of the oxidative metabolism, the evolution solving this vital problem through the so called chaperone effect of the MT. It can be stated that the only efficient answer of the living systems to the copper overload is the induction of MT ( MT ↑). This way a nonlinear risk was transformed by the evolution into a linear / chronic one, involving a transition from a potential hyperoxidative, acute toxicity to a chronic copper interference toxicity ( CIT ).Note:  MT becomes copper active  only in special ( overload ) situations,  the normal , physiological  copper works  without any MT involvment.
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The well established inseparability between the intracellular excess and the induced deficiency of functional copper leads to the general conclusion that not the separation between  degeneration, infection and inflammation represents the right methodological solution since all these conditions ( symptoms ) suppose the intracellular copper imbalance. A better strategy – perhaps the only one – consists in bringing and maintaining the intracellular copper level within the normal, physiological range.

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ANEXA:  Rolul iodului in prevenirea / tratamentul  bolilor

cronice

Deficienta de iod

Se apreciaza  ca aproape 3/4  ( mai exact: 72 % ) din populatia globului  este afectata in grade diferite de deficienta de iod. Iodul – un element esential a devenit deficient datorita schimbarilor  in sens unic intervenite  in  conditiile vietii moderne. Iata cateva dintre acestea:

1. Scaderea consumului specific de sare ( rafinata, sare iodata , sare de mare ) vizat fiind controlul hipertensiunii arteriale;

2. diminuarea progresiva a gradului de mineralizare a solului , ca urmare a unei agriculturi intensive , irationale , cu o compensare  ( fertilizare ) partiala, defectuoasa, introducand sistematic , impreuna cu fosfatii si  fluorura de sodiu ( 1-5 % ), anionul fluorura fiind  fixat preferential de  numeroase vegetale , inclusiv sau mai ales – ceaiul verde ;

3. prezenta excesiva a antagonistilor metabolici ai iodului ( fluor, brom, anion clorhidric ) in apa  de baut / sucuri , pasta de dinti, medicamente, etc.

Ca urmare a acestei deficiente , functia  esentiala a iodului de a produce  hormoni tiroidieni (  tiroxina / T4 si triiodotironina / T3 ) a devenit suboptima, blocarea  graduala a activitatii tiroidei,  in deosebi de catre fluor si brom ,  contribuind  in mod direct direct la numeroase dezordini cronice, de la dureri de cap / migrene, hemoroizi, diabet, obezitate si pana la cancere ( san , ovarian , prostata,…). Concomitent si corelativ, s-au impus  atentiei unele noi functii vitale ale iodului, cum ar fi  detoxifierea tesuturilor , lupta anti-cancer , reenergizarea , s.a. care plaseaza  iodul in centrul asa-numitei  pleiotropic revolution ,  reliefand  specificul multifunctional al acestui element de baza . Situarea iodului  alaturi de alti nutrienti multifunctionali cum sunt : IP- 6 (  inositol hexa fosfat ), resveratrol , vitamina D3 ( cholecalciferol ), vitamina K ( menachinona sau  vit. K2 ), a atras atentia totodata asupra  necesitatii actualizarii  recomandarilor  uzuale pentru consumul zilnic ( vechi de cateva decenii: RDA, RDI, etc. ), elaborate pe baze unilaterale , monofunctionale cum ar fi combaterea hipotiroidismului, a  gusei ( goiter ), sau  retardarii mintale extreme.


Dozele  optime de iod , raportate la  organismul uman ca intreg

In urma cu  un deceniu , recomandarile  uzuale pentru   ingestia  de iod considerata  normala la nivel de adulti de ambele sexe  ( in USA si Europa de Vest ) erau cuprinse intre  150 – 300 micrograme/ zi ( respectiv 0,15 – 0,30 mg )  si  vizau  exclusiv  functionarea  normala a glandei tiroide. Raportate la optimizarea starii de functionalitate a intregului organism aceste cifre erau absolut  insuficiente ,dar la acea data , lucru destul de curios , nu existau  cercetari consacrate nemijlocit  noii situatii , statuata deja,  la modul general , de  revolutia pleiotropica. Abia in 2002 si urm., grupul de cercetatori condus de Dr. G.E. Abraham (medic ) a publicat o serie de articole  de referinta ( in deosebi in  ” The Original  Internist ” ), articole care  au servit drept baza pentru  elaborarea unor protocoale noi, integrative, de competente largite , incluzand  abordarile preventiv – terapeutice ale cancerului la san. Doua au fost punctele de plecare  ale Grupului Abraham :  1.utilizarea  cu succes  a solutiei LUGOL standardizate ( testata  deja pe o durata de peste 150 ani ) : 2 picaturi din aceasta solutie continand  12,5 mg iod / iodura . 2. Studiile demografice avand in centru  consumul diurn de iod  al femeilor  din Japonia contemporana  ( prezentand riscuri minime pentru cancerul la san, uterin si ovarian ): 13,80 mg iod elementar total. Intrucat administrarea de iod / iodura in solutie  prezinta anumite  inconveniente (  dozare nu tocmai acurata, gust metalic, neplacut, cauzand totodata iritatie gastrica  ), solutia  adoptata de Abraham  et comp. a fost pastilarea : noul produs ( marca inregistrata  sub numele IODORAL ) se prezinta sub forma unei tablete  precis cuantificate , continand 5 mg iod  neutru si 7,5 mg iodura sub forma sarii de iodura de potasiu. Consumul minim sugerat  de Dr. Abraham  s-a situat f. aproape de  cifra  japoneza , fiind  o tableta  sau 12,50 mg  iod / iodura pe zi ( limita maxima  fiind de 4 tablete / zi , respectiv 50 mg iod / iodura ), doza optima si durata fiind strict individuale , stabilite de medic. Dupa cativa ani de  utilizare a acestor  indicatii cu pacientii mei, pot atesta ca  cifrele mentionate  corespund noii situatii, permitand un control eficient atat al functionalitati tiroidiene  cat si al celei extra-tiroidiene  ( aflata dincolo de problematica traditionala T3 / T4 ), cu un minim de efecte secundare , negative. Pentru informatii suplimentare, ca si pentru comenzile de Iodoral , recomandarea mea este  sa se contacteze direct firma  producatoare  OPTIMOX- Torrance , California   ( www.optimox.com ).

Efecte secundare potentiale ale utilizarii IODORAL

Ingerarea de Iodoral , intre limitele stabilite , nu este lipsita de anumite simptome neplacute ( minime ), dintre care merita a fi subliniate :

– dureri de cap in zona sinus frontal;

– salivare excesiva si stranut  persistent ;

– leziuni ale pielii de tip acnee , in anumite  zone ale corpului.

Daca  unii pacienti  ( 2-3 % ) au astfel de simptome , recomandarea este  intreruperea imediata a tratamentului si contactarea  medicului care supervizeaza  administrarea  Iodoral , in vederea unei reconsiderari .

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Cei interesati in comandarea unei carti accesibile ,  foarte apreciata aici in America , scrisa  cu  nerv,  de catre  unul dintre  membrii Grupului Abraham – Dr. David Brownstein , MD , intitulata ” IODINE : Why You Need It, Why You Can’t Live Without It”  pot folosi adresa :  drbrownstein.com